The Resurrection of Jesus

January 7, 2020

Death is an enemy.

On occasion death can be a relative good. When the quality of life, for example, is significantly diminished and there is unbearable pain, we might think dying is better than living—but only in a relative sense. Life is better than death since God created us for life, not death.

But death, the enemy, reigns. We are powerless before it. We cannot control it. We have no authority over it. Death comes when it wills. We may be able to delay it, but it still comes.

Indeed, death has a long history. Though shalom or peace once ruled the garden of Eden in which God delighted and where God rested, sin vandalized the goodness of creation and death assumed its dictatorship. Death invaded Eden, and now chaos reigns through death. In Adam, Paul wrote, all die.

Without hope, death gives way to despair. But God has a plan. Jesus the Messiah is God’s response to living east of Eden. Resurrection is God’s answer to death. God does not intend for the creation to disappear into nothingness, including our bodies. God will raise our bodies from the dead that they might live in the renewed creation, the new heaven and new earth.

God has a plan, and it is Jesus the Messiah. Jesus was not only human—authentically human in every way, but he is the new human through his resurrection. He is the first of a new humanity, one that will live forever in resurrected bodies on a renewed earth. His resurrection promises a future for humanity. In Christ, Paul wrote, all are made alive.

Jesus is the first of a coming harvest. Jesus is the first fruit of that harvest; there is more to come. The resurrection of Jesus belongs to the future even though it occurred in the past as a promise of the future.

The resurrection of Jesus is a preview of coming attractions. But this preview does not leave us wondering what the end of the drama is. Instead, in the resurrection of Jesus, we see death destroyed.

The resurrection of Jesus is the power of God that destroys all authority, power, and dominion. Death no longer reigns, but Jesus does. The empire no longer wields power, but the kingdom of God does. Satan no longer holds the keys of Hades or death, but the living Christ does.

Death is the last enemy and it will not last. Death will not win. This is what we celebrate every Sunday, and this is what we celebrate on Easter. God has given us hope in this life and through the resurrection God will give us life after death—not just life “in heaven” after death but life in the new heaven and new earth after the resurrection.

God will not abandon God’s people in the grave. Life wins. Death will lose.


Life in the Spirit – Waiting in Hope

January 7, 2020

Life in the Spirit is always filled with joy, but it is also always filled with lament.

It is both because we live in the in-between times. We live in the space of the “already but not yet.” We rejoice because we already know God’s salvation, and, at the same time, we groan over the sufferings of this present world. We are always groaning and rejoicing because we live in this moment when, though new creation has already begun, it has not yet been fully realized.

This means we must wait. Waiting is precarious. It doesn’t always feel safe. Indeed, it is perilous at times and often uncertain. Waiting is painful; it opens the door to fear. Waiting tests faith. Waiting demands endurance. Though we already experience God’s salvation through the presence of the Holy Spirit, we nevertheless wait with endurance for the full realization of our hope (Romans 8:26).

While we wait, we often suffer. But this suffering, as strange as it may sound, is something in which we boast. Paul tells that we boast not only “in our hope of sharing the glory of God,” but “we also boast in our sufferings” (Romans 5:2-3).

It makes sense to boast in hope. Standing in the grace of God, we have peace with God because we have been declared right with God through Jesus the Messiah. Therefore, we have hope. But this hope has not yet been fully realized, and, consequently, we wait. As we wait, we suffer. And we boast in our sufferings.

Still, does it make sense to boast in suffering? Wherein does the boast lie? Is suffering meaningful? What is gained through suffering?

Paul boasts in suffering because he knows what it produces. We boast in suffering, Paul says, because we know it produces endurance. The word Paul uses refers to something that stands up under pressure. It is squeezed, pressed, and molded into something; it becomes something. Suffering is a crucible, a kind of pressure-cooker. What it produces is something that has withstood the pressure and been formed by it.

We boast in suffering, Paul says, because we know endurance produces character. This is what the pressure produces. The word Paul uses refers to a tested character, or as one older translation puts it, “approvedness.” Endurance produces an approved character, one that has been tested and refined by the process. Through suffering, we grow into something; we gain something. Suffering produces a tested and formed faith.

We boast in suffering, Paul says, because we know that character produces hope. At some point, we confess that the process of suffering has produced something worth the struggle. And that value is hope. It is out of the suffering that we learn to hope, and it is because we stand in the grace of God that we are able to hope. Suffering does not subvert our hope. It produces hope, and this hope does not disappoint us.

Hope is not some kind of self-actualization as if we produce hope through our own efforts or right-thinking. On the contrary, hope is something produced through suffering because of the presence of the Holy Spirit who has poured the love of God into our hearts.

Suffering produces hope because we know the love of God through faith, and we experience the hope of the Holy Spirit in the process of endurance that forms our character. We hope because of what God does in the power and pouring out of the Spirit into our hearts, and we experience that hope through the suffering we endure. In this way, we wait in hope.


Life in the Spirit – Lament

January 7, 2020

Life in the Spirit is always filled with joy, but it is also always filled with lament.

That sounds rather strange, doesn’t it? How can it be both? It is both because we live in-between the times. We live in the space of the “already but not yet.” We rejoice because we already know God’s salvation, and, at the same time, we groan over the sufferings of this present world. We are always groaning and rejoicing because we live in this moment when, though new creation has already begun, it has not yet been fully realized.

Some think that Christians should only rejoice, no matter what their circumstances. They find no place for lament as people who live in the Spirit. While there is always a place for gratitude in our lives, even when we are suffering, there is also space for lament as well. Though, for example, Paul was filled with hope and joy, he also groaned. Even though we have the first fruits of the Spirit, we nevertheless still groan while we wait for the fullness of new creation (Romans 8:23).

Lament, grief, and protest have their rightful place in hearts filled with the Spirit of God. Jesus himself lamented upon the cross, wept at the grave of a friend, and protested the unjust of economics at the temple. Indeed, we might say that the presence of the Spirit gives us voice in such laments, griefs, and protests.

It is because we are filled with the Spirit and enjoy the fruit of the Spirit in our lives that our voices are raised in lament. We groan over the suffering and evil in the creation, and we raise our voice to God whom we ask to end this suffering and rid the world of its evil.

It is because we are filled with the Spirit and enjoy the fruit of the Spirit in our lives that we weep over death, violence, and injustice. We weep at the graves of family and friends, though we weep as those who have hope. We weep over the violence that fills the earth, including our schools and homes.

It is because we are filled with the Spirit and enjoy the fruit of the Spirit in our lives that we protest the injustice in the world. We protest against evil in all its forms, including racial, economic, and gender injustice. We raise our voices in complaint, and we ask God to do something about the injustices that surround us.

Life in the Spirit means that we groan, and our groanings take the form of lament, grief, and protest. We groan, in part, because the Spirit beckons us to a future where there is no suffering, death, and injustice. We groan because the Spirit moves us to acknowledge the frustrations of a creation bound over to decay. We groan because the Spirit has instilled in us a hope and a longing for the fullness of new creation.

When we lament, grieve, or protest, we join our voices with the voice of the Spirit who laments, grieves, and protests with us.


Perfected Through Suffering

December 30, 2019

Why does God permit suffering in God’s good creation? Everyone from the small child to the career philosopher and theologian has asked this question. But I have answer, which, for me, is the only honest answer. I don’t know. I simply don’t know. Whatever reasons God may have for permitting evil and suffering, I not only don’t know them. Further, though the story of God does not leave us totally clueless, even if I had some sense of the depth of God’sreasons I would never understand them. My intelligence is too shallow; my perspective too limited; and my heart too self-interested to fully understand God’s rationale. In other words, my brain is too small to accommodate the fullness of God’s wisdom.

At the same time, the theodrama, the story of God, is not silent about suffering. In fact, it provides the most astounding response to suffering the world has ever heard. It is the story of Jesus.

God became a human being; God became flesh. As a human being, subject to the pains and struggles of the present creation because of that flesh, God suffered alongside of us. God suffered with us. Prior to this incarnation, God had never experienced hunger, thirst, or death. God had never experienced the temptations of the flesh. God became one of us so that God might know us from the inside out as one who has walked in our shoes and fully experienced the human condition, particularly our suffering.

But that is only the beginning. The preacher in Hebrews describes this reality with shocking language. Jesus, the incarnate God, was perfected through suffering (Hebrews 2:10; 5:8-10). But what does that mean?

In part, it refers to the process of spiritual formation that matures our character through the trials of life. Jesus certainly experienced this in the wilderness as well as throughout his life. He grew in wisdom, and he learned obedience by the things which he suffered. In this way, God does use suffering to bear the fruit of righteousness in the lives of the disciples of Jesus (Hebrews 12:11).

But I think we can say more. Jesus, as God incarnate, followed us into our suffering not only to share in it but also to lead us out of it. He came to defeat it, overcome it, and liberate us from it. He followed us into death and pursued us into the grave. But Jesus suffered in order to create a path out of suffering so that he might bring others, along with himself, to glory. He led captivity captive and forged a path through suffering into glory. He was perfected through suffering so that he might perfect us.

In this way, Jesus not only shares our suffering, but we also share his. When we suffer, we suffer with Jesus just as he suffered for us. When we follow Jesus into his ministry, our discipleship shares in the affliction of Jesus, and by this we know the fellowship of his suffering. And if we know the fellowship of his suffering, we will also know the power of his resurrection—not just in the future but even in the present (Philippians 3:10). We know if we suffer with him, just as he suffered with us, we will also be glorified with him, just as he was glorified in his resurrection and exaltation (Romans 8:17).


Already But Not Yet

December 30, 2019

For disciples of Jesus, living in the present world is shaped by three horizons.

First, we, along with everyone else, recognize the present creation is filled with violence and suffering; it is filled with evil. The human condition is far from ideal as racism, homophobia, sexism, murder, and injustice appear at every turn. Moreover, tsunamis, earthquakes, tornadoes, and hurricanes leave a path of destruction in their wake. As the apostle Paul put it, the creation has been subjected to futility or frustration. The creation has not yielded its full promise but lives in a bondage given over to decay. Consequently, even the creation itself, along with all humanity, groans for liberation; it groans for redemption.

At the same time, though groaning with the creation, disciples of Jesus also experience joy and hope because new creation has already begun and even now we enjoy the fruit of God’s redemptive work. For example, we already experience redemption through the presence of the indwelling Holy Spirit who is the first fruit of a coming harvest. By the presence of the Spirit, we already participate in the new creation. The Holy Spirit knows our hearts, searches them, and intercedes for us. The Holy Spirit groans with us and also secures our hearts through the hope of redemption and liberation. While we groan over the brokenness and violence that is still part of the present creation, we also may know peace, joy, and hope by the presence of the Spirit in our hearts.

We groan because we have not yet fully experienced the promise of a new creation. At present, the creation groans in its bondage, and we groan over the evil in the world as well as our own suffering. Nevertheless, we are rescued through this groaning by hope, which is poured into our hearts by the power of the Holy Spirit. Our hope is the future redemption of our bodies in the resurrection as well as the future liberation of creation. We hope for the fullness of new creation when God will renew the present creation and rid it of its evils, sufferings, and chaos. While we have not yet experienced this future, it is our hope. Because God has raised Jesus from the dead and poured the Spirit into our hearts, we wait in hopeful expectation for that future.

We wait. That is the difficult part. Waiting involves endurance because our hopes and dreams are not immediately realized, and sometimes it seems they are mere illusions, the product of self-deception and wishful thinking. Waiting is a process of endurance drawn from the witness of the Spirit in our hearts who orients us to the future God is preparing for us. But waiting is hard.

This is one reason disciples of Jesus live under three horizons. On the one hand, we acknowledge the reality of the present evil age, and we suffer because of it. Yet, on the other hand, we already know the joy of the presence of the Holy Spirit in our hearts, which enables our endurance. But, and this is the third horizon, we do not yet fully experience what God has in store for us. We live in-between the times. We name the evil of the age, while we, at the same time, know the joy of the Spirit as we await the future.


Life in the Spirit: Transformation (Part 2)

December 19, 2019

Disciples of Jesus, like their Messiah, have been anointed with the Holy Spirit. Disciples of Jesus walk by the Spirit, live by the Spirit, and are led by the Spirit. The Spirit is the air we breathe and the one who empowers us. Ours is a life in the Spirit.

But what do we mean when we say that disciples of Jesus live in the Spirit? The Theodrama emphasizes three dimensions of this life in the Spirit: (1) communion, (2) transformation, and (3) giftedness.

First, as previously discussed, the Spirit is the one by whom we commune with the Triune God. Second, the Spirit is the one by whom God transforms us into the image of Christ. Now, lastly, we turn our attention to the gifts the Holy Spirit distributes within the body of Christ.

The Spirit distributes the gifts of God. These gifts range from gifts of mercy, teaching, leadership, generosity (Romans 12:3-8) to wisdom, knowledge, healings, miracles, prophesy, and tongues (1 Corinthians 12:8-10). These lists are exhaustive but illustrative of God’s work within the community of faith for the sake of the body and the world. The same Spirit disperses a diversity of gifts (1 Corinthians 12:11).

The Holy Spirit empowers our ministry as the Spirit gifts each of us for service in our faith communities as well as in the world. The Spirit equips for the “common good”—for communities of faith, for human society, and for creation. We seek these gifts through prayer, discipleship, and mentoring relationships.

God gives the Spirit as a communing and transforming presence. God created us for communion and redeems us to transform us. And God goes one step further. God gifts us so that we might participate in God’s mission.

“Through the Spirit,” Paul wrote, God gives the body of Christ the capacity to serve each other and the world. These “manifestations of the Spirit” are for the “common good,” and the gifts are “activated” and distributed by the Spirit of God (1 Corinthians 12:7-8, 11).

It is important, however, to note that presence comes first, then transformation, and finally giftedness. We might think of this as a spiral of activity where there is reciprocity but also movement toward a goal. God dwells in order to commune. That communion transforms us, and, as people in the process of transformation, God gifts us so that we might participate in the mission of God. The gifts are best used by transformed people. This is why 1 Corinthians 13 comes between 1 Corinthians 12 and 14. Giftedness without love is useless; more than useless, it is detrimental. Transformation must shape the use of the Spirit’s gifts.

The gifts of the Spirit refer whatever capacity we have to participate in the mission of God. Whatever talent we use to further the mission of God–whether it is software development, musical ability, environmental passion—they are the gifts of God. Too often we talk about talents as if they are natural dispositions independent of God’s work among us. One of the reasons we feel so distant from the Holy Spirit is because we secularize our gifts. we minimize the Spirit’s role. Giftedness, inclusive of talents, is a manifestation of the Spirit!

We see the Spirit when transformed people (or, better, people in the process of transformation) use their gifts to further the mission of God, which is the transformation of the whole world. We see the Spirit when an environmental biologist cares for the creation, when a nurse compassionately cares for the sick, when a debt mediator reconciles a creditor and a debtor, and when an actor embodies the gospel in a drama (even if the drama never mentions God at all). We “see” the Spirit’s gifts in action when brokenness is healed.

The Spirit gifts us, not for our own glory, but for the glory of God as the mission of God is furthered in the world.


Life in the Spirit – Transformation (Part 1)

December 16, 2019

Disciples of Jesus, like their Messiah, have been anointed with the Holy Spirit. Disciples of Jesus walk by the Spirit, live by the Spirit, and are led by the Spirit. The Spirit is the air we breathe and is the one who empowers us. Ours is a life in the Spirit.

But what do we mean when we say that disciples of Jesus live in the Spirit? The Theodrama emphasizes three dimensions of this life in the Spirit: (1) communion, (2) transformation, and (3) giftedness.

First, as noted in the previous presentation, the Spirit is the one by whom we commune with the Triune God. Now, second, we turn our attention to the work of the Spirit in transformation.

The Holy Spirit is the power by whom we are transformed into the image of Christ. The Spirit indwells us to empower, strengthen, and sanctify us. The Spirit bears the fruit of love, peace and joy in our lives, comforts us in our inner person, empowers forgiveness and release from resentment, and enables our transformation.

The Spirit mediates our communion with the Triune God, and this communion is transformative. The Spirit is no passive presence. On the contrary, the Spirit is an active, enabling, and sanctifying presence. The Spirit dwells within us so that we might live in the Spirit.

Salvation involves transformation. Because we are children of God, God sends the Holy Spirit into our hearts and we experience the intimacy of divine communion. But this is not the end game; it is not God’s goal. This intimacy includes a shared life, and it transforms us. We are increasingly, by the Spirit, transformed (or, metamorphized!) into the image of Christ from “one degree of glory to another” (2 Corinthians 3:18).

The Holy Spirit is the presence of God within us, and this holy presence bears fruit. Paul called it the “fruit of the Spirit” (Galatians 5:22). This is what it means to “live by the Spirit,” that is, to manifest a life of love, joy, peace, kindness, generosity, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control. The Spirit leads us into a such a life by renewing our hearts, empowering our souls, and moving our wills.

The presence of the Spirit is a necessary first step for such a life, and without that presence there is no transformation that images Jesus who himself was led and empowered by the Spirit. The reality of this presence is evidenced in a holy life as we are “sanctified by the Spirit” (2 Thessalonians 2:13).

We see the Spirit when we are patient with the stubborn, when we are kind to the ungrateful, when we are at peace in the midst of the storm, when we are generous with the poor, and when we are gentle with those who disagree. We must not secularize these moments as if they are personal self-actualizations. Rather, we give thanks that the Spirit is at work in our lives to empower them. We credit the Spirit rather than our programs, our will power, or our own goodness. God, by the Spirit, forms us into the image of Christ, and that is the glory and goal God has in store for us.


Life in the Spirit – Communion With God

December 12, 2019

Disciples of Jesus, like their Messiah, have been anointed with the Holy Spirit. Disciples of Jesus walk by the Spirit, live by the Spirit, and are led by the Spirit. The Spirit is the air we breathe and the Spirit is the one who empowers us. Ours is a life in the Spirit.

But what do we mean when we say that disciples of Jesus live in the Spirit? What does that look like, and how do we embody that in our lives and ministries?

For purposes of brevity, we may say that the Theodrama emphasizes three dimensions of this life in the Spirit: (1) communion, (2) transformation, and (3) giftedness. We will address communion now and the other two in further presentations.

The Spirit is the one by whom we commune with the Triune God. God dwells among us through the Spirit. Just as God was personally present in Israel through the temple and in the incarnation through Jesus, so God is personally present in the Jesus community through the indwelling Holy Spirit. We are the temple of God. The Spirit of God dwells among us and in us as a down payment of our future dwelling with the Triune God in the new heaven and the new earth.

Through the Spirit, we commune with and experience the person of God. The Spirit is the personal, existential connection between God and humanity. The personal indwelling of the Spirit is the experience of God in our hearts whereby we cry “Abba, Father.” God and Christ come to dwell us through the presence of the Spirit. The Spirit’s foundational function is to mediate communion between God and us. Our communion with God is the “communion of the Holy Spirit” (2 Corinthians 13:12).

The indwelling presence of the Spirit, which is the fulfillment of God’s presence in the temple in Israel and anticipates the fullness of divine presence in the new heaven and new earth, is how we now live in fellowship with God. We were washed in the Spirit (1  Corinthians 6:11). We worship in the Spirit (Philippians 3:3). We pray in the Spirit (Ephesians 6:18). We are “in the Spirit because the Spirit of God dwells” in us (Romans 8:9). The Spirit is the air we breathe, and our every breath is communion with God.

This communion, of course, is not merely vertical. It is also horizontal, that is, we commune with each other by what we share in the Spirit (Philippians 2:1). We love each other in the Spirit (Colossians 1:8). Because we have all been baptized in the Spirit and have drunk of the same Spirit, we are one body, and ethnic, economic, and gender barriers are transcended in the body of Christ (1 Corinthians 12:13;  Galatians 3:28).

We see the Spirit among us when we enjoy the sweet fellowship of others, experience the peace and joy of the Spirit in communion with God, and encounter God in the assembly of God’s people as we worship in the Spirit. We must not secularize these moments as if they are produced by our own internal powers. Rather, we relish them and delight in them because we know, by God’s promise, that the Spirit is present to generate them. They are moments where heaven and earth meet in the Spirit.


Missional Mandate: Shepherding the Creation

December 9, 2019

In the beginning of the Theodrama, God created humanity as God’s image to partner with God in the filling, co-creating, and shepherding of the creation.  When God chose Israel as the firstborn among the nations, God invested this same identity and vocation in them as they were tasked with filling the land God had given them, creating a just and compassionate society as a light to the nations, and caring for the land God had given them. Now, God has renewed Israel through the outpouring of the Holy Spirit on Pentecost and called this new Jesus’ community to fill the earth with the glory of God, create just and compassionate communities as lights among the nations, and care for the earth. 

The first vocation is to fill the earth, and disciples of Jesus fill the earth by making disciples.

The second vocation is to subdue the earth by creating order out of chaos, and disciples of Jesus embrace this vocation by subverting and opposing the principalities and powers that presently seek to rule the creation.

The third vocation is, according to Genesis 1:28, is to rule or shepherd the creation, which God loves and will one day liberate from its bondage to decay.

When I described the human vocation earlier in the Theodrama, I noted that ruling the earth was not a function of cruel tyranny but of compassionate shepherding. We rule the earth like shepherds who care for flocks. This is our human vocation, and it is also the vocation of disciples of Jesus because they serve the Lord of creation, Jesus the Messiah.

Our task as human beings has not changed; we are still blessed by God to shepherd the creation. And renewed Israel, the kingdom of our Lord Jesus the Messiah, takes up this task in the midst of environmental chaos and destruction. 

When the Word of God became flesh, God affirmed the goodness of creation. God became part of the creation through the virgin birth. As Jesus ministered within Israel, he healed the sick, restored sight to the blind, and raised the dead, and, in this way, Jesus affirmed God’s intent to heal the creation itself. When Jesus died, God raised him from the dead and gave him an immortal material body as the firstborn of the new creation, the new heaven and new earth.

Enthroned alongside God, Jesus—along with the one seated on the throne—received the praise of “every creature in heaven and on earth and under the earth and in the sea, and all that is in them” (Revelation 5:13). All creation praises God and Jesus, and this creation exists by their will.

And our vocation, as disciples of Jesus, is to partner with God in caring for the creation. We protect the air and water of the earth, preserve space for the animals, and care rather than destroy the environment.

We reign with Christ over the cosmos. We are co-rulers, and our rule is a benevolent one rather than a destructive one. In fact, when God finally redeems the creation and the kingdoms of this world become the kingdom of God’s Messiah, God will, as Revelation 11:18 says, destroy “those who destroy the earth.”

As co-regents with Jesus the Messiah, we share responsibility for the earth. It is both our human and kingdom vocation. As a result, let us act responsibly towards the environment, and, at the very least, plant a tree, a garden, or care for the animals.


Missional Mandate – Subduing the Powers

December 5, 2019

In the beginning of the Theodrama, God created humanity as God’s image to partner with God in the filling, co-creating, and shepherding of the creation.  When God chose Israel as the firstborn among the nations, God invested this same identity and vocation in them as they were tasked with filling the land God had given them, creating a just and compassionate society as a  light to the nations, and caring for the land God had given them. Now, God has renewed Israel through the outpouring of the Holy Spirit on Pentecost and called this new Jesus community to fill the earth with the glory of God, create just and compassionate communities as lights among the nations, and care for the earth. 

The first vocation is to fill the earth, and disciples of Jesus fill the earth by making disciples.

The second vocation is, according to Genesis 1:28, to subdue the earth. But how do disciples of Jesus subdue the earth? In Genesis this means to subdue the remaining chaos within the creation and to co-create with God in a way that brings order to the chaos that remains. We told that story earlier in this series. Here is one example. Software developers bring order to chaotic data so that human beings have a greater opportunity to fully flourish as images of God. My Turbo-Tax software program certainly helps me flourish during tax season as it removes anxiety, orders my financial chaos, and decreases my time investment.

But how does this vocation, to subdue the earth, show up within the kingdom of Jesus? How do disciples of Jesus “subdue the earth?” Just as the kingdom vocation of filling the earth was more than populating it but rather forming disciples in the image of Jesus, so here subduing the earth is more than creating order out of chaos in terms of the natural world but confronting, subverting, and redeeming the chaotic disorder that presently rules the world. 

Jesus called Satan the “prince” of this world, a ruler who wields the principalities and powers that oppose the kingdom of our Lord Jesus. These principalities and powers come in many forms, including empires who oppress others, indwelling sin that enslaves us like an overwhelming addiction, and spiritual forces that array themselves against the Lord Jesus. The church, just as Jesus did in his ministry, confronts these powers, speaks truth to these powers, and subverts the powers by its obedience to the kingdom of God.

The book of Acts records this vocation. When Peter and John were brought before the ruling Jewish council, they spoke truth to that power and declared they would obey God rather than any human authority. When Paul encountered evil spirits in Ephesus, he released the demon oppressed from their bondage, and the disciples confessed, disclosed their practices, and burned their books of sorcery. When Paul was brought before Felix, the Roman governor, he talked about “righteousness, self-control, and the judgment to come” (Acts 24:25).

Subduing the earth is the vocation with which God has tasked humanity—to bring order out of chaos, and this vocation is part of the reign of Jesus. Disciples of Jesus not only make disciples, they also confront and subvert the principalities and powers by their witness to the kingdom of God and by their obedience to King Jesus. Disciples of Jesus subvert and subdue the powers when they become like Jesus their King.